C Programming Language Tutorial

Last Updated : 11 Mar, 2024

In this C Tutorial, you’ll learn all C programming basic to advanced concepts like variables, arrays, pointers, strings, loops, etc. This C Programming Tutorial is designed for both beginners as well as experienced professionals, who’re looking to learn and enhance their knowledge of the C programming language.

What is C?

C is a general-purpose, procedural, high-level programming language used in the development of computer software and applications, system programming, games, and more.

  • C language was developed by Dennis M. Ritchie at the Bell Telephone Laboratories in 1972.
  • It is a powerful and flexible language which was first developed for the programming of the UNIX operating System.
  • C is one of the most widely used programming languages.

C programming language is known for its simplicity and efficiency. It is the best choice to start with programming as it gives you a foundational understanding of programming.

Print Hello World using C Programming


#include <stdio.h>

int main() {
printf("Hello World! I Don't Give a Bug");
return 0;

Hello World! I Don't Give a Bug

“Give this C code a try, and here’s a fun challenge: print ‘Hello World’ along with your name!”

C Programming Language

Getting Started With C Programming Tutorial

Start your coding adventure with our free C Tutorial. A perfect C programming tutorial for beginners and advanced coders alike, this tutorial is your key to unlocking the magic of C programming. With clear explanations and fun examples.

C Tutorial

C Basics

C Variables and Constants

C Data Types

C Input/Output

C Operators

C Control Statements Decision-Making

C Functions

C Arrays & Strings

C Pointers

C User-Defined Data Types

C Storage Classes

C Memory Management

C Preprocessor

C File Handling

C Error Handling

C Programs


C Interview Questions

Why Learn C?

C programming language is one of the most popular programming language. It is a must learn for software engineering students. C is called the mother of all modern programming languages so learning C will help you to learn other languages easily like Java, C++, C#, Python, etc. C language is faster than other programming languages like Java and Python. It can handle low-level programming and we can compile the C code in a variety of computer platforms.

List of some key advantages of C language:

  • Easy to learn.
  • Versatile Language, which can be used in both applications and technologies.
  • Mid-Level Programming Language.
  • Structured Programming Language.

C Compiler

C compiler is a software that translates human-readable C language code into machine code or an intermediate code that can be executed by a computer’s central processing unit (CPU).

There are many C compilers available in the market, such as GNU Compiler Collection (GCC), Microsoft Visual C++ Compiler, Clang, Intel C++ Compiler, and TinyCC (TCC).

For this tutorial, we will be using the GNU-based online C compiler provided by GeeksforGeeks which is developed for beginners and is very easy to use compared to other compiler/IDE’s available on the web.

Features of C Language

There are some key features of C language that show the ability and power of C language:

  • Simplicity and Efficiency: The simple syntax and structured approach make the C language easy to learn.
  • Fast Speed: C is one of the fastest programming language because C is a static programming language, which is faster than dynamic languages like JavaScript and Python. C is also a compiler-based which is the reason for faster code compilation and execution.
  • Portable: C provides the feature that you write code once and run it anywhere on any computer. It shows the machine-independent nature of the C language.
  • Memory Management: C provides lower level memory management using pointers and functions like realloc(), free(), etc.
  • Pointers: C comes with pointers. Through pointers, we can directly access or interact with the memory. We can initialize a pointer as an array, variables, etc.
  • Structured Language: C provides the features of structural programming that allows you to code into different parts using functions which can be stored as libraries for reusability.

Applications of C Language

C was used in programs that were used in making operating systems. C was known as a system development language because the code written in C runs as fast as the code written in assembly language.

The use of C is given below:

  • Operating Systems
  • Language Compilers
  • Assemblers
  • Text Editors
  • Print Spoolers
  • Network Drivers
  • Modern Programs
  • Databases
  • Language Interpreters
  • Utilities

FAQs on C Language

Q1. How to learn C easily?


The first steps towards learning C or any language are to write a hello world program. It gives the understanding of how to write and execute a code. After this, learn the following:

  • Variables
  • Operators
  • Conditionals
  • Loops and Errors
  • Arrays and Strings 
  • Pointers and Memory
  • Functions
  • Structures
  • Recursions 

Q2. Difference between C and C++?




C is a procedural programming language.

C++ is both a procedural and object-oriented programming language.

It does not support Function overloading.

It supports function overloading.

Operator overloading is not supported.

Operator overloading is supported.

C does not support data hiding which leads to security concerns.

Data hiding is supported in C++ by Data Encapsulation.

 Q3. Is C easy to learn for beginners?


While C is one of the easy languages, it is still a good first language choice to start with because almost all programming languages are implemented in it. It means that once you learn C language, it’ll be easy to learn more languages like C++, Java, and C#.

Q4. Why should we learn C first rather than C++?


C is a ‘mother of all languages.’ It provides a solid understanding of fundamental programming concepts and is considered easier to grasp. C offers versatile applications, from software development to game programming, making it an excellent choice for building a strong programming foundation.

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