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Business Studies

Last Updated : 13 Mar, 2024
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Business Studies is defined as the area of study that talks about the principles of business, economics and management. It is taught at the secondary level in India as an academic elective. It covers management, marketing, and finance. 

GeeksforGeeks Business Studies covers every topic, like Business, Commerce, Forms of Business Organisation, Business Services, Business Finance, Social Responsibility, Business Ethics, International Business, Functions of Management, Principles of Management, Marketing, Stock Exchange, Training, Recruiting, Planning, etc.

Business Studies

Business, Trade, and Commerce

  1. Introduction to Business
  2. Difference between Business, Profession, and Employment
  3. Trade and Auxiliaries to Trade
  4. What is Business Risk?
  5. Basic Factors for Starting a Business
  6. Types of Industries- Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary

Forms of Business Organisation

  1. Forms of Business Organization
  2. Sole Proprietorship | Features of Sole Proprietorship
  3. Advantages and Disadvantages of Sole Proprietorship
  4. What is Joint Hindu Family Business (Hindu Undivided Family Business) ?
  5. Advantages and Disadvantages of Joint Hindu Family Business
  6. Partnership | Meaning and Features of Partnership
  7. Advantages and Disadvantages of a Partnership
  8. Partnership Deed – Aspects and Registration
  9. Types of Partners
  10. Types of Partnership
  11. Cooperative Society – Meaning, Features, and Types
  12. Advantages and Disadvantages of Cooperative Society
  13. Joint Stock Company: Meaning, Features, and Types
  14. Advantages and Disadvantages of a Joint Stock Company
  15. Choice of Form of Business Organisation

Private, Public, and Global Enterprises

  1. Private, Public, and Global Enterprises
  2. Forms of Organizing Public Sector Enterprises
  3. Difference between Private and Public Sector
  4. What is Statutory Corporation? | Meaning and Features
  5. Merits and Demerits of Statutory Corporation
  6. What is a Government Company? | Meaning, Features, and Suitability
  7. Merits and Demerits of Government Company
  8. What is Departmental Undertaking ? | Meaning, features, and Suitability
  9. Merits and Demerits of Departmental Undertaking
  10. Changing Role of Public Sector
  11. Government Policy towards Public Sector since 1991
  12. What are Global Enterprises?
  13. Joint Venture and its Types
  14. Public Private Partnership (PPP) : Meaning, Features, Applications, Advantages and Disadvantages

Business Services

  1. Types of Business Services
  2. Difference between Goods and Services
  3. Nature and Types of Services
  4. Types of Banking
  5. Meaning and Benefits of e-Banking
  6. What is Insurance? | Functions of Insurance
  7. Principles of Insurance
  8. Types of Insurance
  9. Life Insurance: Meaning, Elements, and Types of Life Insurance Policies
  10. Fire Insurance: Meaning, Claim for Loss (Conditions) and Elements of Fire Insurance Contract
  11. What is Marine Insurance?
  12. Difference between Life, Marine, and Fire Insurance
  13. Communication Services: Postal and Telecom Services
  14. Types of General Insurance
  15. Warehousing Services: Meaning, Types and Function

Emerging Modes of Business

  1. Introduction to Emerging Modes of Business
  2. e-Business: Benefits and Limitations
  3. Scope of e-Business: B2B Commerce| B2C Commerce|C2C Commerce|Intra B-Commerce
  4. What is e-commerce? Explain benefits and types of e-commerce.
  5. Difference between E-business and Traditional Business
  6. What is an Online Transaction?
  7. Types of e-business Risks
  8. Outsourcing: Meaning, Features, Scope, Types of OSP, BPO
  9. Why is Outsourcing Needed?
  10. Concern over Outsourcing

Social Responsibilities of Business and Business Ethics

  1. Social Responsibilities of a Business and its Need
  2. Types of Social Responsibilities of a Business
  3. Business Ethics – Meaning, Benefits and Elements
  4. Social Responsibility: Arguments For and Against Social Responsibility
  5. Social Responsibility towards Different Interest Groups
  6. Business and Environmental Protection: Causes and Types of Pollution, Need for Pollution Control and Role of Business in Environment Protection

Formation of a Company

  1. Formation of a Company
  2. Promotion of a Company: Meaning, Documents and Steps Involved
  3. Who is a Promoter?
  4. What is Incorporation?
  5. Difference between Articles of Association and Memorandum of Association
  6. Steps required for raising Funds from Public
  7. One Person Company: Meaning and Characteristics

Sources of Business Finance

  1. Business Finance: Sources and Factors Affecting the Choice of the Source of Funds
  2. Business Finance: Meaning, Nature, and Significance
  3. Sources of Funds and its Classification
  4. What are the Different Sources of Finance?
  5. Retained Earnings: Meaning, Features, Advantages and Limitations
  6. Trade Credit: Advantages and Disadvantages
  7. Advantages and Disadvantages of Factoring
  8. Lease Financing – Meaning, Advantages and Disadvantages
  9. Public Deposits: Advantages and Disadvantages
  10. Commercial Paper | Features and Types
  11. Advantages and Disadvantages of Commercial Paper
  12. Issue of Shares | Meaning and Types of Shares
  13. Equity Shares : Merits and Demerits
  14. Preference Shares : Types, Merits and Demerits
  15. What do you mean by Debenture? Explain its Types, Advantages, and Disadvantages
  16. Commercial Banks: Advantages and Disadvantages
  17. Advantages and Disadvantages of Financial Institutions
  18. International Financing: Meaning and Sources of International Financing
  19. Factors Affecting the Choice of the Source of Funds

Small Business

  1. MSME and Business Entrepreneurship
  2. What is Entrepreneurship?
  3. Importance and Types of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR)

Internal Trade

  1. Introduction to Internal Trade
  2. What is Internal Trade?
  3. Wholesale Trade and Services of Wholesalers
  4. Services Offered by Wholesalers
  5. Services Offered by Retailers
  6. Difference between Wholesaler and Retailer
  7. Types of Retailers: Itinerant Retailers and Fixed Shop Retailers
  8. Who are Itinerant Retailers?
  9. Who are Fixed Shop Retailers?
  10. What are Departmental Stores?
  11. What are Chain or Multiple Stores?
  12. Difference between Departmental Stores and Multiple Stores
  13. Mail Order Houses: Meaning, Advantages, and Disadvantages
  14. Consumer Cooperative Stores: Meaning, Advantages, and Disadvantages
  15. Super Markets – Characteristics, Advantages and Disadvantages
  16. What is External Trade?
  17. What is GST? Types, Features, Benefits, Input Tax Credit, GST Council
  18. Role of Commerce and Industry Associations in Promotion of Internal Trade

International Business

  1. Introduction to International Business
  2. International Business: Meaning, Reason, Scope and Benefits
  3. Difference between International Trade and International Business
  4. Difference between Domestic Business and International Business
  5. Modes of Entry into International Business
  6. Exporting and Importing – Meaning, Advantages and Disadvantages
  7. Contract Manufacturing: Meaning, Advantages and Disadvantages
  8. Advantages and Disadvantages of Licensing and Franchising
  9. Joint Ventures: Meaning, Advantages and Disadvantages
  10. Wholly Owned Subsidiaries: Meaning, Advantages, and Disadvantages
  11. What is Export Procedure?
  12. Steps in Import Procedure
  13. Documents required in Import Transaction
  14. Foreign Trade Promotion Measures and Schemes
  15. Organisational Support in International Business
  16. International Monetary Fund (IMF): Objectives and Functions
  17. World Trade Organisation (WTO): Features, Functions and Objectives

Nature and Significance of Management

  1. What is Management? Concept, Characteristics, Objectives, Importance and Functions
  2. Difference between Effectiveness and Efficiency
  3. Nature of Management as a Science, Art and Profession 
  4. Levels of Management
  5. Functions of Management- Planning, Organising, Staffing, Directing and Controlling
  6. Coordination – The Essence of Management | Concept, Features and Importance
  7. Difference between Coordination and Cooperation

Principles of Management

  1. Nature and Significance of Principles of Management
  2. 14 Principles of Management by Henri Fayol
  3. Difference between Unity of Command and Unity of Direction
  4. Principles of Scientific Management
  5. Techniques of Scientific Management
  6. Difference between Time Study and Motion Study
  7. Difference between Fayol and Taylor Theories of Management

Business Environment

  1. What is Business Environment ? | Meaning and Features
  2. Importance of Business Environment
  3. Dimensions of Business Environment
  4. Economic Environment in India
  5. New Industrial Policy and its impact on the Business
  6. Concept and Features of Demonetization


  1. Features, Importance and Limitations of Planning
  2. Planning Process: Concept and Steps
  3. Types of Plans: Standing Plan and Single-use Plan
  4. Difference between Standing Plans and Single-Use Plans
  5. Difference between Policies and Objectives
  6. Difference between Policies and Strategy
  7. Difference between Policies and Procedures
  8. Difference between Procedures and Methods
  9. Difference between Procedures and Rules
  10. Difference between Policies and Rules
  11. Difference between Rules and Methods


  1. Organising- Meaning, Importance and Process
  2. Types of Organisation Structure
  3. Difference between Functional Structure and Divisional Structure
  4. Formal and Informal Organisation
  5. Difference between Formal and Informal Organisation
  6. Elements and Importance of Delegation
  7. Difference between Authority, Responsibility and Accountability
  8. Centralization and Decentralization
  9. Difference between Centralization and Decentralization
  10. Difference between Delegation and Decentralisation


  1. Features and Importance of Staffing
  2. Staffing and Human Resource Management
  3. Staffing Process
  4. Sources of Recruitment (Internal and External: Meaning, Merits and Demerits)
  5. Difference between Internal Recruitment and External Recruitment
  6. Steps in Selection Process
  7. Difference between Recruitment and Selection
  8. Importance of Training and Development to Organisation and Employees
  9. Methods of Training: On-the-Job Methods and Off-the-Job Methods
  10. Difference between On-the-Job Training Methods and Off-the-Job Training Methods
  11. Difference between Training and Development
  12. Difference between Training, Development and Education


  1. Directing: Meaning, Characteristics and Importance
  2. Principles and Elements of Directing
  3. Importance of Supervision
  4. Features and Importance of Motivation
  5. Process of Motivation
  6. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory
  7. Financial and Non-Financial Incentives
  8. Difference between Financial and Non-financial Incentives 
  9. Features and Importance of Leadership
  10. Types of Leadership Styles
  11. 10 Qualities of a Good Leader
  12. Difference between a Manager and a Leader
  13. Nature and Importance of Communication
  14. Elements of Communication Process
  15. Communication Channels | Formal and Informal
  16. Formal Communication: Meaning, Types, Networks, Merits and Demerits
  17. Informal Communication: Meaning, Networks, Merits and Demerits
  18. Barriers to Effective Communication
  19. Measures to improve Communication Effectiveness


  1. Controlling: Nature, Importance, and Limitations
  2. Relationship between Planning and Controlling
  3. Process of Controlling

Financial Management

  1. Role and Objectives of Financial Management
  2. Kinds of Financial Decisions
  3. Investment Decision: Meaning and Factors affecting Investment Decision
  4. Financing Decision: Meaning and Factors affecting Financing Decision
  5. Dividend Decision: Meaning and Factors affecting Dividend Decision
  6. Financial Planning: Objectives and Importance
  7. What is Capital Structure
  8. Factors affecting the choice of Capital Structure
  9. What is Fixed Capital and Working Capital?
  10. Fixed Capital: Meaning, Importance and Factors Affecting Requirement of Fixed Capital 
  11. Working Capital: Meaning, Types, Operating Cycle and Factors Affecting the Working Capital

Financial Markets

  1. Financial Market: Meaning, Functions, and Classification
  2. Instruments of Money Market
  3. What is Capital Market?
  4. Difference between Money Market and Capital Market
  5. What are the different Methods of Floatation of Securities in Primary Market?
  6. Difference between Primary Market and Secondary Market
  7. What is Stock Exchange?
  8. Trading Procedure on a Stock Exchange
  9. 12 Common Terms in Stock Exchange
  10. Depository System: Meaning, Services and Constituents
  11. Dematerialisation of Securities (Demat Account): Benefits and Working
  12. What is National Stock Exchange of India (NSEI)?
  13. What is Over the Counter Exchange of India (OTCEI)?
  14. Difference between NSEI and OTCEI
  15. Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI): Objectives and Functions


  1. Marketing: Features and Functions
  2. Difference between Selling and Marketing
  3. Marketing Management Philosophies
  4. What is Marketing Mix?
  5. What is Product Mix?
  6. Classification of Products
  7. Difference between Convenience Products, Shopping Products and Speciality Products
  8. Difference between Consumer Products and Industrial Products
  9. What is Branding?
  10. Packaging: Levels, Importance and Functions
  11. What is Labelling?
  12. Price Mix: Meaning and Factors Affecting Price Determination
  13. What is Place/Physical Distribution Mix?
  14. Types of Distribution Channels
  15. Factors Determining Choice of Channels of Distribution
  16. Components of Physical Distribution
  17. What is Promotion Mix?
  18. Advertising: Features, Merits and Demerits
  19. Objections to Advertising
  20. Personal Selling: Features, Merits and Role
  21. Qualities of a Good Salesman
  22. Difference between Advertising and Personal Selling
  23. Sales Promotion: Merits, Demerits and Activities/ Techniques
  24. What is Public Relations?

Consumer Protection

  1. Consumer Protection: Meaning, Importance and Means
  2. Consumer Rights and Responsibilities
  3. Who is a Consumer?
  4. Consumer Protection Act 1986 v/s Consumer Protection Act 2019
  5. Redressal Agencies under the Consumer Protection Act, 2019
  6. Remedies available to Consumers under Consumer Protection Act 2019

Business Studies Notes for CBSE Class 11th

The notes contain 11 chapters covering every important topic, like Business, Commerce, Forms of Business Organisation, Business Services, Business Finance, Social Responsibility, Business Ethics, International Business, and many more. These notes are enough for learning basic and crucial knowledge about business studies from scratch.

Business Studies Notes for CBSE Class 12th

The notes contain 12 chapters covering every important topic, like Functions of Management, Principles of Management, Marketing, Stock Exchange, Training, Recruiting, Planning, and many more.

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