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Algorithms Tutorial

Last Updated : 04 Apr, 2024
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An algorithm is a step-by-step procedure for solving a problem or accomplishing a task. In the context of data structures and algorithms, it is a set of well-defined instructions for performing a specific computational task. Algorithms are fundamental to computer science and play very important role in designing efficient solutions for various problems. Understanding algorithms is essential for anyone interested in mastering data structures and algorithms.

What is Algorithm?

What is an Algorithm?

An algorithm is a finite sequence of well-defined instructions that can be used to solve a computational problem. It provides a step-by-step procedure that convert an input into a desired output.

How do Algorithms Work?

Algorithms typically follow a logical structure:

  • Input: The algorithm receives input data.
  • Processing: The algorithm performs a series of operations on the input data.
  • Output: The algorithm produces the desired output.

What is the Need for Algorithms?

Algorithms are essential for solving complex computational problems efficiently and effectively. They provide a systematic approach to:

  • Solving problems: Algorithms break down problems into smaller, manageable steps.
  • Optimizing solutions: Algorithms find the best or near-optimal solutions to problems.
  • Automating tasks: Algorithms can automate repetitive or complex tasks, saving time and effort.

Examples of Algorithms

Below are some example of algorithms:

  • Sorting algorithms: Merge sort, Quick sort, Heap sort
  • Searching algorithms: Linear search, Binary search, Hashing
  • Graph algorithms: Dijkstra’s algorithm, Prim’s algorithm, Floyd-Warshall algorithm
  • String matching algorithms: Knuth-Morris-Pratt algorithm, Boyer-Moore algorithm

How to Write an Algorithm?

To write an algorithm, follow these steps:

  • Define the problem: Clearly state the problem to be solved.
  • Design the algorithm: Choose an appropriate algorithm design paradigm and develop a step-by-step procedure.
  • Implement the algorithm: Translate the algorithm into a programming language.
  • Test and debug: Execute the algorithm with various inputs to ensure its correctness and efficiency.
  • Analyze the algorithm: Determine its time and space complexity and compare it to alternative algorithms.

Learn Basics of Algorithms:

Analysis of Algorithms:

Types of Algorithms:

Algorithms can be different types, depending on what they do and how they’re made. Some common types are:

1. Searching and Sorting Algorithms:

2. Greedy Algorithms:

3. Dynamic Programming Algorithms:

4. Pattern Searching Algorithms:

5. Backtracking Algorithm:

6. Divide and Conquer Algorithm:

7. Geometric Algorithm:

8. Mathematical Algorithms:

9. Bitwise Algorithms:

10. Graph Algorithms:

11. Randomized Algorithms:

12. Branch and Bound Algorithms:


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